Swam Francolin

Swamp Francolin (Francolinusgularis), a globally threatened bird, is endemic to the Indian Subcontinent, found in Nepal, India, and Bangladesh. This species has been categorized as ‘Vulnerable’due to the rapid decline in its population caused by habitat degradation and loss. In Nepal, the potential habitats for swamp francolin, such as wet grasslands and associated habitats, are found in the lowlands (Terai) of Nepal. Terai region is home to a total of six protected areas, including five national parks and one wildlife reserve, which possess potential habitats for the Swamp Francolin.


Additionally, the population of the francolin has been monitored since 1998 in intervals of some years (3-5 years), but it has not been monitored for over a decade. Therefore, this project aims to monitor the population of swamp francolin in Suklaphanta National Park (SNP) and KoshiTappu WildlifeReserve (KTWR) using the point count method. It also aims to conduct a presence and absence survey of swamp francolin in low-lying protected areas through group discussions with nature guides and researchers. A biophysical survey was carried out to collect vegetation data to determine its habitat utilization. A total 21 points were established in SNP and 27 points in KTWR.


In KTWR, an average of 104 birds in average were counted from 27 points while 52 birds were counted in SNP. The density of the birds in KTWR was recorded at 21 pairs per square kilometer, whereas the density of birds in SNP is 14 pairs per square kilometer. This study reconfirms that swamp francolin is found only in KTWR and SNP and absent from other protected areas, such as Chitwan National Park, Parsa National Park, Banke National Park, and Bardia National Park).